The American Colony and Eric Matson Collection:
Traditional Life and Customs

Founded in 1881 by Horatio Spafford (author of the famous hymn, It is Well With My Soul), the American Colony in Jerusalem operated a thriving photographic enterprise for almost four decades. Their images document the land and its people, with a special emphasis on biblical and archaeological sites, inspirational scenes, and historic events. One of the photographers, G. Eric Matson, inherited the archive, adding to it his own later work through the “Matson Photo Service.” He eventually donated all the negatives to the U.S. Library of Congress, which has made them available to the public.

This CD includes more than 600 selected photographs of life practices of native people in Palestine in the early 20th century, including scenes of the agricultural cycle, locust plagues, shepherds, fishermen, religious observances, and home life. All of the images are included in pre-made PowerPointŪ files for quick and easy use, as well as in high-resolution jpg format, suitable for projecting or printing. Quotations from 19th-century travelers give additional context to the photographs.

Free: Download the Agricultural Life: Grain Harvest PowerPoint file.

About the Producer: Todd Bolen is a professor on study leave from the Israel Bible Extension of The Master’s College near Jerusalem.  He is the producer of more than 20 volumes of photographs illustrating the biblical world, including the Pictorial Library of Bible Lands.

Cost: $25 $20 (free shipping in the U.S.)

Or buy the complete 8-volume set for $189 $99.

Guarantee: You will be satisfied or your money will be refunded.

Just what does "Traditional Life and Customs" include?

Agricultural Life: Plowing, Sowing, Water, Vineyards, Locust Plague, Grain Harvest and Olive Harvest (185 photos total)

Psalm 23:2

Biblical Stories: Christmas, Ruth, and Psalm 23 (75 photos total)

Home Life: Food Preparation, Women at Work, and Weddings (100 photos total)

Religious Life: Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and Samaritan (110 photos total)

Work Life: Clothes Making, Fishing, Pottery Making, Shepherds, Trades, and Travel (150 photos total)

Quotations: We have scoured the reports of travelers in the 19th century for the most interesting and helpful descriptions of these scenes.  Even if you didn't have the photos, your understanding and appreciation for traditional ways would be greatly increased!

 

List of Photographs on the CD

 

PowerPoints

Agricultural Life, Grain Harvest.ppt

Agricultural Life, Olive Harvest.ppt

Agricultural Life, Plowing and Sowing.ppt

Agricultural Life, Vineyards.ppt

Agricultural Life, Water.ppt

Christmas Story.ppt

Home Life, Food Preparation.ppt

Home Life, Weddings.ppt

Home Life, Women at Work.ppt

Jerusalem's Locust Plague, National Geographic 1915.doc

Jerusalem's Locust Plague, National Geographic 1915.pdf

Locust Plague.ppt

Psalm 23 Color.ppt

Fishing boats on Sea of Galilee

Psalm 23.ppt

Religious Life, Christian.ppt

Religious Life, Jewish.ppt

Religious Life, Muslim.ppt

Religious Life, Samaritan.ppt

Ruth Story.ppt

Travel.ppt

Work Life, Clothes Making.ppt

Work Life, Fishing.ppt

Work Life, Potter and Pottery.ppt

Work Life, Shepherds.ppt

Work Life, Trades.ppt

 

Agricultural Life, Grain Harvest

Arab family with camel carrying hay bundles

Arab peasants reaping

Bedouin threshing floor activity

Bringing in sheaves

Gathering sheaves

Measuring wheat

Muzzled cow used for threshing

Peasant winnowing in Field of Boaz

Peasant woman sifting grain

Peasant woman sifting wheat

Reapers' repast

Reaping barley harvest

Reaping harvest

Sifting wheat

Threshing floor activity

Threshing grain on threshing floor

Threshing sledge with boy

Threshing wheat

Threshing with cattle at Samaria

Threshing with cattle

Wheat and tares

Wheat field

Activity on threshing floor

Winnowing grain in Lebanon

Winnowing grain on threshing floor

Winnowing grain

Woman threshing with flail

 

Agricultural Life, Olive Harvest

Beating down olives

Crushing olives

Gathering olives from ground

Gathering olives

Harvesting olives

Maiden picking olives from branches

Olive press with horse

Olive press

Olive presses at Bet Guvrin

 

Agricultural Life, Plowing and Sowing

Arab peasant sowing grain

Bedouin plowing with camel on Sharon Plain

Digging thorns out of field

Plow, forks, and farm tools

Plowing and sowing

Plowing with donkey and cow

Plowing with mule

Plowing with yoke of cattle

Plowing with yoked oxen

Sowing grain on Mount of Olives

Working in field

 

Agricultural Life, Vineyards

Ancient winepress in Ein Kerem

Ancient winepress in Ein Kerem, Middle Bronze jars

Arab man pruning vines

Gathering grapes in vineyard

Man with grapes by watchtower

Women carrying water jars

Picking figs next to vineyard

Picking grapes in vineyard

Terraced hillsides with watchtowers

Vineyard and watchtower

Watchtower in vineyard

 

Agricultural Life, Water

Bedouin woman with water jar

Busy scene at desert well

Camel drinking

Crowd getting water from spigots, Ein Arrub

Double waterwheel at Hama

Egyptian irrigating wheel with camel

Irrigating orange groves in Bir Salem

Joseph's Well at Dothan with cattle

Man filling waterskin from spigot

Man giving water to camel

Naura, water wheel, at Hama

Oriental irrigation wheel

Shaduf, irrigating in Egypt

Transporting water on camel

Village well

Water carriers

Water wheel and aqueduct for irrigation at Hama

Woman at well near Bethlehem

Women and children by spring

Women and children getting water from stream

Women carrying water jars

Yoke of cattle raising water from deep well

 

Christmas Story

Camel rider approaching Bethlehem

Family with donkey

Interior of peasant home near Bethlehem

Mother and baby of Nazareth

Native home near Bethlehem with wise men

Native home near Bethlehem

Shepherd with flock near Bethlehem

Shepherds Fields east of Bethlehem

Shepherds watching flocks by night

Three men on camels approaching Bethlehem

Well of Magi with camels of Transjordan frontier guards

Woman with child

 

Home Life, Food Preparation

Arab woman working small primitive grain mill

Arab women working hand mill

Bedouin making bread

Bedouin man at millstone

Bedouin woman baking bread

Bedouin woman grinding wheat

Bedouin woman making bread

Bedouin woman milking goats

Bedouin women at millstone

Bedouin women working primitive grain mill

Two women grinding in courtyard

Bedouins churning butter

Bedouins preparing coffee in their tent

Beersheba feast, group of Bedouins eating from tray

Burghul mill near Aleppo

Churning butter

Cooking in peasant home, cooking pot and thorn fire

Drying cheeses on Bedouin tent roof

Drying fruit on roof

Eating meal

Grinders, three types including modern stone hand mill

Large grain rubber, demonstrated by two girls

Peasant women sorting raisins

Peasants eating meal

Supper in guest chamber

Two women grinding at mill

Two women grinding in courtyard in front of home

Upper room guest chamber, guests partaking of meal

Village oven

 

Home Life, Weddings

Bedouin wedding, Bedouin Amazon

Bedouin wedding, Bedouin family

Bedouin wedding, Bedouin saluting

Bedouin wedding, Bedouin youth mounted

Bedouin wedding, bride

Bedouin wedding, bridegroom

Bedouin wedding, bridesmaids covered with Aba

Bedouin wedding, bridesmaids on camel

Bedouin wedding, bridesmaids

Bedouin wedding, general view of Bedouin encampment

Bedouin wedding, girls kneading dough

Bedouin wedding, jumping competition

Bedouin wedding, mounted Bedouins racing

Bedouin wedding, mounted men chasing each other

Bedouin wedding, playing ball

Bridal procession

Bedouin wedding, playing cat and mouse

Bedouin wedding, playing leap frog

Bedouin wedding, playing wolf and sheep

Bedouin wedding, preparing fatted kid for guests

Bedouin wedding, procession ready to start

Bedouin wedding, procession

Bedouin wedding, shooting competition

Bedouin wedding, strangers in guest chamber of tent

Bedouin wedding, sunset over Bedouin camp in Moab

Bedouin wedding, sword dance

Bedouin wedding, typical scene in guest chamber

Bedouin wedding, woman dancing with sword

Bedouin wedding, women's apartment in Bedouin tent

Bridal procession

Bringing in bride

Crowds at wedding watching races

Decorating wedding camel

Horsemen heading procession

Nazareth bride

Peasant wedding

Singing women on camel at wedding

Sword dance at wedding

Warrior of Kiriath Jearim at wedding

 

Home Life, Women at Work

Arab Christian home interior

Arab home in rock cavern

Arab peasant women carrying brush for fuel

Bedouin chieftain's tent

Bedouin encampment with large tent of sheikh

Bedouin hospitality, having coffee in sheikh's tent

Bedouin in tent

Native village

Bedouin mother and swaddled baby

Bedouin musician

Bedouin tent made of papyrus

Bedouin tents

Bedouin woman weaving papyrus mats

Bedouin woman weaving tent of goats' hair

Bedouin women carrying papyrus bundles

Bedouins preparing to make tent of papyrus

Courtyard of old house in Bethlehem

Drying manure for fuel

Home in Jezreel

Morning grooming

Native house, inside

Native village

Peasants laden with cauliflowers

Straw baskets drying

Typical scene around campfire at night

Village guest chamber

Woman and children in courtyard of house

Woman weaving reed baskets

Women on way to market with baskets on heads

Women selecting straw for baskets

 

Locust Plague

Auto wheel swarmed with locusts, car at stand still

Bushes with locusts, ideal target for flame gun

Covering in filled locust pits and digging others

Cutting zinc for walls to check locust invasion

Erecting zinc wall which stopped invading locusts

Flame thrower, used effectively in rough country

Flame throwers in action, near Auji Hafir

Flame throwers in rocky country in Transjordan

Froth filled pouch tubes, exposed by blown off sand

Halt of locust swarm around dry desert herbage

Locust crawlers covering digging implements

Locust egg tubes, exposed by shifting sands

Locust plague of 1915, larval stage

Locust laying eggs, ovipository deep in ground

Locust pit, to engulf advancing horde

Locust plague of 1915, 2 weeks later, sprouted leaves

Locust plague of 1915, antennae disengaged

Locust plague of 1915, apricot tree denuded

Locust plague of 1915, bearing olives one year later

Locust plague of 1915, break in nymph skin

Locust plague of 1915, carefully drying out wings

Locust plague of 1915, close up of dreaded visitors

Locust plague of 1915, close up of same tree

Locust plague of 1915, close view of barked fig tree

Locust plague of 1915, cloud of locusts

Locust plague of 1915, combing out wings with legs

Locust plague of 1915, complete locust

Locust plague of 1915, crawling locust

Locust plague of 1915, discarded nymph skin all intact

Locust plague of 1915, drying wings continued

Locust plague of 1915, drying wings

Locust plague of 1915, eggs and locusts just hatched

Locust plague of 1915, exercising the wings

Locust plague of 1915, extricating last extremity

Locust plague of 1915, fig tree after

Locust plague of 1915, fig tree before

Locust plague of 1915, final sixth molting commencing

Locust plague of 1915, first symptom of molting

Locust plague of 1915, further progress in molting

Locust plague of 1915, Garden of Gethsemane

Locust plague of 1915, grapes, autumn after locusts

Locust plague of 1915, hoppers still carefully guarded

Locust plague of 1915, later stage in molting

Locust plague of 1915, locust discarding old skin

Locust plague of 1915, locust exhausted, taking rest

Locust plague of 1915, locust foraging

Locust plague of 1915, locusts after second molting

Locust plague of 1915, locusts at window

Locust plague of 1915, locusts attacking olive tree

Locust plague of 1915, locusts denuding fig tree

Locust plague of 1915, locusts devouring thistle

Locust plague of 1915, locusts eating hard palm leaves

Locust plague of 1915, locusts entering trap

Locust plague of 1915, locusts in larval stage

Locust plague of 1915, mass of locusts in trap

Locust plague of 1915, metamorphosis continued

Locust plague of 1915, mishap, bruised tissue inflated

Locust plague of 1915, molting half completed

Locust plague of 1915, olive grove stripped of leaves

Locust plague of 1915, olive grove with new leaves

Locust plague of 1915, olive tree after

Locust plague of 1915, olive tree in full bloom

Locust plague of 1915, portable above ground trap

Locust plague of 1915, portable trap with sack

Locust plague of 1915, quince tree stripped bare

Locust plague of 1915, storks in pursuit of locusts

Locust plague of 1915, stripped vineyard

Locust plague of 1915, stripping off nymph skin

Locust plague of 1915, trapping locusts

Locust plague of 1915, wings in process of unfolding

Locust poison squad marching to scatter poison

Overseer's trousers covered with locust crawlers

Pit half full of seething mass of locusts

Pit inside zinc wall, 1 to 2 square meters in size

Plowing up of locust eggs, Haifa plain near Carmel

Pouch of locust eggs laid deep in sand

Preparing locust poison, bran soaked with arsenic

Refueling flame throwers

Roll call in locust camp, desert south of Beersheba

Scattering locust poison among bushes

Scouts watching movements of invading locust army

Series of locust egg pouches in ground, 15 cm deep

Skeleton of camel, desert casualty eaten by locusts

Swarms of locust crawlers stopped by zinc wall

Swarms of locusts taking deadly leap into pit

Tramping down pit of locusts while holding noses

Victims of flame gun, burned locusts under bushes

 

Psalm 23

Psalm 23,1a The Lord is my shepherd

Psalm 23,1b I shall not want

Psalm 23,2a, He maketh me to lie down in green pastures

Psalm 23,2b He leadeth me beside still waters

Psalm 23,3 He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness

Psalm 23,4a, The valley of the shadow of death

Thou anointest my head with oil (Psalm 23:5)

Psalm 23,4b Thy rod and staff comfort me

Psalm 23,5a Thou preparest a table before me

Psalm 23,5b Thou anointest my head with oil

Psalm 23,5c My cup runneth over

Psalm 23,6, Surely goodness and mercy

 

Psalm 23 Color

Psalm 23,1, The Lord is my shepherd

Psalm 23,2a, He maketh me lie down in green pastures

Psalm 23,2b, He leadeth me beside still waters

Psalm 23,3a, He restoreth my soul

Psalm 23,3b, He leadeth me

Psalm 23,3c, In paths of righteousness

Psalm 23,4a, Though I walk through the valley

Psalm 23,4b, I will fear no evil for thou art with me

Psalm 23,4c, Thy rod and thy staff they comfort me

Psalm 23,5a, Thou preparest a table before me

Psalm 23,5b, Thou anointest my head with oil

Psalm 23,5c, My cup runneth over

Psalm 23,6a, Surely goodness and mercy

Psalm 23,6b, I will dwell in the house of the Lord

 

Religious Life, Christian

Armenian funeral

Epiphany ceremony at Holy Sepulcher

Epiphany ceremony at Jordan River

Foot washing ceremony at Holy Sepulcher

Funeral in Bethlehem

Preparing for Epiphany ceremony

Refreshment of tea after baptism in Jordan

Russian Epiphany ceremony at Jordan River

Russian pilgrims at Jordan River

Russian pilgrims lunching on the wayside

Russian priestesses of Ein Kerem

Sanctifying waters of Jordan on Epiphany

Religious Life, Jewish

Ancient scrolls in Stambouli Synagogue

Feast of Tabernacles, Bukharan Jews during Sukkot

Jeshurun Synagogue on King George Avenue

Jeshurun Synagogue, interior looking southeast

Jeshurun Synagogue, interior with women's gallery

Jew blowing shofar, Sabbath horn

Jewish funeral on Mount of Olives

Jewish man arrayed for prayer

Jewish procession to Absalom's Pillar

Orthodox Jewish scribe writing Torah on parchment

Phylacteries for head and arm

Stambouli Synagogue, interior

Yemenite Jew blowing shofar, Sabbath horn

Yemenite Rabbi Avram arrayed for prayer

 

Religious Life, Muslim

Arab religious procession

Arab religious procession

Camel caravan of pilgrims to Mecca

Circumcision procession

Funeral of Mohammed Ali, Indian Muslim leader

Herod's Gate, sacrificial ceremony in front of gate

Mecca, bird's eye view of tent city outside Kaaba

Mecca, bird's eye view of uncrowded Kaaba

Weli of Budrieh,
smearing blood on doorpost

Mecca, camels and tents of pilgrims

Mecca, close up of Kaaba

Mecca, Kaaba

Mecca, view of Kaaba crowded with pilgrims

Mecca, view of Kaaba with city in background

Muezzin calling out prayer from minaret

Muslim funeral

Muslim pilgrim praying

Muslim pilgrims on train for Mecca

Nebi Musa crowd at Dome of Rock

Nebi Musa procession with band

Nebi Musa procession, Lions Gate

Nebi Musa procession

Nebi Musa procession, Yorkshire Band preceding Holy Flag

Nebi Musa, ceremony over holy flag

Nebi Musa, crowds at Lions Gate

Nebi Musa, Damascus Gate

Nebi Musa, flag receiving final blessing

Nebi Musa, holy flags and crowds, Dome of Rock

Nebi Musa, holy flags arriving at Al Aqsa

Nebi Musa

Weli of Budrieh, collecting blood for ritual

Weli of Budrieh, oriental salutation after sacrifice

Weli of Budrieh, preparing to skin sheep

Weli of Budrieh, sacrifice

Weli of Budrieh, skinning sheep

Weli of Budrieh, smearing blood over doorpost

Weli of Budrieh, watering sheep before sacrifice

Yorkshire Infantry awaiting return of Holy Flag

 

Religious Life, Samaritan

Old Samaritan scroll

Oldest Samaritan scroll

Samaritan Passover, at Abraham's altar

Samaritan Passover, baking unleavened bread

Samaritan Passover, breakfast on mountain

Samaritan Passover, burning remains of sacrifice

Samaritan Passover, carcasses ready for oven

Samaritan Passover, congregation on Gerizim summit

Samaritan Passover, congregation praying

Samaritan high priest with scroll

Samaritan Passover, eating sacrifice in great haste

Samaritan Passover, encampment on Mount Gerizim

Samaritan Passover, evening prayer

Samaritan Passover, family eating sacrifice

Samaritan Passover, going to Abraham's altar

Samaritan Passover, heating oven

Samaritan Passover, heating water for sacrifice

Samaritan Passover, high priest eating sacrifice

Samaritan Passover, high priest eating with staff

Samaritan Passover, high priest leading in prayer

Samaritan Passover, high priest praying

Samaritan Passover, high priest with scroll

Samaritan Passover, morning prayer after sacrifice

Samaritan Passover, pilgrimage on 'Rock Moriah'

Samaritan Passover, prayer on holy rock, on knees

Samaritan Passover, prayer on holy rock, prostrate

Samaritan Passover, praying on knees

Samaritan Passover, praying standing

Samaritan Passover, praying, faces toward Gerizim

Samaritan Passover, preparing carcass

Samaritan Passover, pulling wool off sheep

Samaritan Passover, sacrifice

Samaritan Passover, salting sacrifices

Samaritan Passover, salutation

Samaritan Passover, sheep for sacrifice

Samaritan Passover, women's place at ceremony

Samaritan school in Nablus

 

Ruth Story

Ruth 1,2, The names of his two sons were Mahlon and Kilion

Ruth 1,4, They married Moabite women, one named Orpah

Ruth 1,8, Naomi said to her two daughters in law

Ruth 1,19, The two women went on until Bethlehem

Ruth 1,22, The barley harvest was beginning

Ruth 2,1, Naomi had a relative whose name was Boaz

Ruth 2,2, Ruth the Moabitess said to Naomi

Ruth 2,3, She began to glean in the fields behind the harvesters

Ruth 2,4, Boaz greeted the harvesters

"Where did you glean today?" (Ruth 2:19)

Ruth 2,7, She has worked steadily, except for a short rest

Ruth 2,8, Do not go and glean in another field

Ruth 2,9, Whenever you are thirsty, go and get a drink

Ruth 2,10, Why have I found such favor in your eyes

Ruth 2,11, All know that you are a woman of noble character

Ruth 2,14, At mealtime Boaz said, Come, have some bread

Ruth 2,15, Even if she gathers among the sheaves

Ruth 2,17, She threshed the barley she had gathered

Ruth 2,19, Where did you glean today

Ruth 2,23, Ruth stayed close to the servant girls

Ruth 3,1, My daughter, should I not try to find a home for you

Ruth 3,2, He will be winnowing barley on the threshing floor

Ruth 3,3, Go down to the threshing floor

Ruth 3,6, She went down to the threshing floor

Ruth 3,15a, Bring me the shawl you are wearing and hold it out

Ruth 3,15b, He poured into it

Ruth 3,15c, Six measures of barley

Ruth 3,17, Do not go back empty-handed

Ruth 3,18, Wait, my daughter, until you find out

Ruth 4,3, Naomi is selling the piece of land

Ruth 4,13, Boaz took Ruth and she became his wife

Ruth 4,14, The women said to Naomi

Ruth 4,16, Naomi took the child, laid him in her lap

 

Travel

Bedouin warrior making his camel kneel

Bedouin wedding, Bedouin family moving

Camel caravan on Mt of Olives

Camel suckling her young

Camel

Camel, ship of the desert

Camels drinking

Camels fording stream, Elah Valley

Camels forging Auja River, north of Jaffa

Camels laden with olive wood

Camels saluting in Sinai

Camels walking across field

Caravan crossing desert

Caring for sick camel

Crossing desert to Euphrates

Halt of camels

Khan, native inn

Line of camels

Men saluting in Sinai

Natives travelling on back of camel

Ready to traverse desert, man on camel

Silhouette of caravan

Train of camels in North Palestine

Train of camels

 

Work Life, Clothes Making

Bedouin shepherdess spinning wool

Bedouin woman spinning wool

Bedouin women weaving

Jews carding cotton

Nazareth women washing clothes

Peasant girl embroidering

Peasant women sewing

Ramallah peasant spinning wool

Tripoli weaver

Weaver of outer garments

Woman holding spindle, standing in road

Woman washing clothes at fountain

 

Work Life, Fishing

Boat filled with fish at Tiberias dock

Boats filled with fish

Fisherman casting net at Capernaum

Fisherman casting net

Fishermen drawing in dragnet,
Sea of Galilee

Fisherman drawing net at sunset

Fisherman selling fish in Tiberias

Fisherman throwing net at sunset

Fisherman with cast net

Fishermen drawing in dragnet

Fishermen eating breakfast on shore of Sea of Galilee

Fishermen in boats near Jordan mouth

Fishermen letting down nets

Fishermen mending nets at dawn

Fishermen mending their nets

Fishermen mending their nets

Fishermen on Sea of Galilee

Fishermen on shore with fire of coals

Fishermen setting forth in boat

Fishermen with fish in net

Fishing boats on Sea of Galilee

Fishing dragnet almost drawn in

Sea of Galilee with fishermen

Sea of Galilee, drawing in dragnet

 

Work Life, Potter and Pottery

Arab woman finishing storejar

Arab women making pottery

Crushing clay

Girls decorating pottery

Jars and vases drying in sun

Kiln where pottery is baked

Potter at his lathe wheel

Potter

Shaping earthenware jars on wheel

Woman decorating vase

Women kneading clay

 

Work Life, Shepherds

Ghawarni shepherd boy playing pipe

Natural sheepfold at Ras el Ein

Pastoral night scene showing Bethlehem in distance

Sheep counted while entering sheepfold

Sheep drinking from pool

Shepherd boy with sling

Sheep grazing

Sheep with their shepherd

Shepherd boy playing to his sheep

Shepherd boy slinging

Shepherd boy with sheep

Shepherd boy

Shepherd carrying sheep beside still waters

Shepherd guarding entrance of sheepfold

Shepherd of Moab

Shepherd piping to his flocks

Shepherd resting with flock at Ein Farah

Shepherd shearing sheep

Shepherd with flock beside stream

Shepherd with sheep

Shepherds pooling noonday meal

Shepherds with flock at night

Washing sheep at Ein Farah

 

Work Life, Trades

Arab women bartering at market

Beverage seller on street

Bread vendor

Building stone house in hill country village

Carpenter making plows and farm implements

Damascene inlaid slipper maker

Damascene sword maker

Drilling holes in beads

Fruit vendor

Fruit vendors at Homs train station

Gathering brush for limestone kilns near Jerusalem

Glass blowing in Hebron

Glass works

Grocer's shop

Hebron, tanning of government skins

Homs, lime kiln burning thorns

Jaffa boatmen

Jerusalem shoeblacks at Jaffa Gate

Jerusalem water carrier, with two goat skins

Jewelry shop in Hebron

Making gunpowder, boiling liquid

Making gunpowder, evaporating liquid

Making gunpowder, mixing

Village carpenter making plows

Making gunpowder, obtaining liquid

Making gunpowder, preparing a blast

Making horseshoes

Man tinning kettle

Meatball vendor

Mixing and carrying mortar

Porter carrying empty petrol tins

Porter

Primitive mill

Repairing house

Selling cakes on street in Beirut

Sharpening sickles

Shoemaker

Shop of sweet meats

Street barber

Turning lathe

Vendor with fruit and vegetables

Village carpenter with awl

Village carpenter, making plows

Watermelon market

Wood carver in workshop

Workers in mother of pearl